Hall of Fame: the Early Players in the Charles Center-Inner
One of the reasons for making the Global Harbors documentary was
to record the names and the roles played by the earlier players
- the “visionaries,” who rose to fight the threat of municipal
bankruptcy and in the process created the Baltimore Renaissance.
Some of them put into motion the plans - legal, physical and governmental
- that turned out to be so spectacularly feasible and right. Others
took those plans and delivered the results, relying on nerve, hard
work and the reluctant support of their fellow citizens.
Baltimoreans today express complete surprise when
they are told the Inner Harbor story actually began in 1954-55, when
the Committee for Downtown and the Greater Baltimore Committee were
formed. As the Wall Street Journal reported in 1981:
“It's easy to assume Baltimore was reborn in 1980,
when the Rouse Company opened Harborplace...But the city actually
began to turn itself around in the 1950's. The revitalized downtown
is the product of a sustained effort by a small group of executives,
planners and politicians...an urban renewal effort that's been under
way for 30 Years.”
The following is an attempt to give recognition and
credit to more of the people who were key players in the beginning
and throughout the years of development -- when every time a new
challenge or hurdle rose up, the right person seemed to appear to
keep the process on the right track. Very briefly, an initial list
is as follows, in roughly chronological order from 1950 up to the
creation of the “critical mass” of Inner Harbor attractions in1980-81:
The Pre-Renaissance Years
Charles Buck: Chair of the non-governmental private
watchdog Commission on Governmental Efficiency and Economy, which
issued the report saying that the city was on the verge of municipal
bankruptcy in 1952 - providing the stimulus for the downtown redevelopment
J. Jefferson Miller: the retired department store
executive who started the whole adventure by forming the Committee
for Downtown to raise money to pay for the Downtown Master Plan,
and who was the $1-a-year General Manager of the successful Charles
Center Project for the first decade. He then became the first Chairman
of Charles Center-Inner Harbor Management, Inc.
James W. Rouse, author of the national urban renewal
program and one of the founders of the Greater Baltimore Committee
(GBC). After the Charles Center Plan was put into execution, he directed
his attention to Howard County, where he built the new city of Columbia
between 1960 and 1980. He later returned to create Harborplace in
the Inner Harbor - the catalyst for the critical mass of attractions
that became a worldwide tourist destination.
Clarence Miles: the city's most prominent lawyer in
the 1950's, who brought the Orioles back to Baltimore and gave the
GBC its start by becoming its first Chair - thus ensuring its credibility
and status in the business community.
Walter Sondheim - widely known for his civic leadership
in many causes, he was also the Chairman of the nation's first municipal
Urban Renewal and Housing Commission, which funded the Charles Center
development. He later became the advisory Chairman of Charles Center-Inner
Harbor Management, Inc., while acting as advisor to many Mayors and
Eugene Feinblatt: Founding partner of a prestigious
law firm, he wrote the legal statutes that created the Baltimore
urban renewal program and the city Department of Housing and Community
Development (HCD); he crafted the contractual structure that empowered
Charles Center-Inner Harbor Management, Inc. in its role as manager
of the program, and authored the trail-blazing land development agreement
between the city and the Hyatt Development Corp.
Oliver Winston, former Director of the Baltimore Housing
Authority; in 1956, he became the first Executive Director of the
Baltimore Urban Renewal and Housing Agency.
Archibald Rogers, founder of the architectural firm
RTKL, who served a year as the interim Executive Director of GBC
after its formation; he later provided the technical justification
for the State Highway Commission to move Interstate 95 away from
the mouth of the Inner Harbor.
William Boucher III: the Executive Director of the
Greater Baltimore Committee in the crucial years from 1957 through
the 1970's, when the GBC provided the high-profile, unselfish business
leadership that gave the downtown development program its necessary
credibility and support.
William Ewald and Edward J. (Ned) McNeal: successive
Executive Directors of the Retail Merchants Association, who implemented
Jeff Miller's fund-raising campaign and later provided P.R. support
for the Charles Center project, including the unique Downtown Discovery
Tours for suburban and out-of-town groups to appreciate what was
Phase One: The Charles Center Project
Hunter Moss: James Rouse's early business partner,
a mortgage banker and real estate appraiser who was the hands-on
Chairman of the Planning Council of the Greater Baltimore Committee,
Inc. when its planning staff created the Charles Center Plan.
David A. Wallace: Director of the Planning Council
of the GBC, who directed
the creation of the Charles Center Plan and then formed the private
planning firm WRT - which created the Inner Harbor Master Plan and
designed the Promenade and Constellation Pier and many of the other
George Kostritskv: the urban designer for the Planning
Council of the GBC, on the team that created the Charles Center Plan;
he later became the “K” in the RTKL architectural firm, where he
designed the three public plazas in Charles Center.
William B. Potts: the chief urban planner for the
Planning Council of the GBC in the creation of the Charles Center
Plan; later acted as planning consultant for Charles Center-Inner
Harbor Management, Inc. in the implementation of the Inner Harbor
plan and secretary of the Architectural Review Board.
Harry Cooper, Economist for the Planning Council of the GBC in
the creation of the original Charles Center Plan and other strategic
Marion Warren, the legendary architectural photographer,
who was hired by the GBC to record the images of Charles Center "before" and "after" redevelopment, and then continued to record the Renaissance on his own until
2006. His pioneering photographic techniques had much to do with
the community's acceptance of the Charles Center project.
Boyd Barnard, head of Larry Smith & Co.,
the feasibility analyst for Chas. Center
Dennis Durden, analyst at Larry Smith & Co.,
first Deputy General Manager. of Charles Center; he began the public-private
partnership and set up the land disposition policies for the implementation
of Charles Center
Charles Seymour and Fred Babcock, appraisers and fair
market value analysts for CC-IH Inc.
Barbara Johnson Bonnell: the first Deputy Executive
Director of the GBC, who became Director of Information for Charles
Center-Inner Harbor Management, Inc., and then for the Baltimore
Development Corporation through the 1990's.
David L. Barton, a textbook publisher and P.R. expert
who master-minded the surprisingly successful marketing campaign
for the Charles Center Project and became Chairman of the Baltimore
City Planning Commission at the time of the Inner Harbor development.
Isaac Hamburger: head of the family-owned Hamburger's
men's clothing store; as a member of the GBC, he abstained from voting
against the Charles Center Project even though it would demolish
his newly-rehabilitated store, so that there would be unanimous approval
by the GBC.
Thomas J. D'Alesandro. Jr.: who was the powerful Mayor
at the time the Charles Center Plan was created by the business community
and had the good sense and political nerve to accept it and move
it into implementation in record time.
Theodore R. (Ted) McKeldin: as Governor he persuaded
the State Legislature to approve a $25 million bond issue in 1958
as working capital for Charles Center -- in spite of the initial
doubts as to its feasibility; later he returned as Mayor and launched
the city full force into the 300-acre Inner Harbor project.
Richard L. Steiner: the first Director of the Baltimore
Redevelopment Authority, who went to Washington to become the Federal
Urban Renewal Commissioner and then returned to Baltimore in 1959
to become Executive Director of the nation's first municipal Urban
Renewal and Housing Agency, overseeing Charles Center and the Inner
Bernard Weissbourd: the Chicago developer who saw
the potential opportunity in Charles Center and retained the World's
premier architect, Mies van der Rohe, to design the first building
in Charles Center - giving the program a profile of design excellence.
Mies van der Rohe: considered the world's greatest
architect at the time his design won the competition for development
rights for the first building in Charles Center.
Jacob Blaustein: head of the American Trading and
Production (Amoco) empire, who narrowly lost the design competition
for the development rights for the first building in Charles Center,
but went ahead and successfully developed his own building -- in
the same high-risk market as One Charles Center.
Martin Millspaugh: became Deputy General Manager of
Charles Center with Jeff Miller in 1960, and then created Charles
Center-Inner Harbor Management, Inc. (CC-IH) in 1965 and became its
Chief Executive during the development of the Inner Harbor; in 1985
he joined James Rouse in the Enterprise Development Company, to take
the Baltimore Inner Harbor model to other cities in the U.S. and
Herb Channick, vice president of Metropolitan Structures,Inc.,
of Chicago, and project director for One Charles Center.
Jerry Trout, retired construction supervisor for the
Hecht Co., who fulfilled that role for CC-IH.
Bernard Manekin: real estate broker and developer
who directed the critical leasing program for One Charles Center,
in the face of a negative market and community doubt; he later became
Chairman of the Greater Baltimore Committee.
Robert B. Hobbs: CEO of the First National Bank of
Maryland and Chairman of the GBC Development Committee, who led the
campaign to market One Charles Center to corporate tenants, at considerable
risk to his own position, and later became a principal advisor and
Director of CC-IH, Inc.
Albert M. Copp: joined the Charles Center staff in
1961. He served as Executive Vice-President and COO of CC-IH from
1965 to 1985 and President until 1990; he was primarily responsible
for the successful functioning of the public-private partnership
between CC-IH and the many career Departments of the City Government.
Larry Fenneman: Baltimore realtor who became the City's
business relocation manager on the staff of the Charles Center Management
Office and later CC-IH, Inc. compiling a record of the successful
relocation of more than 700 businesses, with more than 90% finding
new locations in the City.
Pietro Belluschi. Dean of Architecture at MIT, who
was the dominant force on the Architectural Review Board for Charles
Center and the Inner Harbor, and later designed the IBM Building
in the Inner Harbor and became a career Gold Medalist of the American
Institute of Architects.
Morris Mechanic: a real estate investor and owner
of the old Ford's Theater, who developed the new Mechanic Theater
in Charles Center as the City's only legitimate home of Broadway
Jon Johansen: the Connecticut-based architect of the
Mechanic Theatre, which featured pioneering design features and was
labeled - along with One Charles Center - as “one of the important
U.S. buildings of the 1960's.”
Charles and Tim Mullan: residential developers who
created the award-winning Two Charles Center apartment towers as
the first downtown residential development in the Charles Center-Inner
Ted Wolff: CEO of the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company,
who saw the opportunity in the Charles Center Plan and directed his
company to build the second private office building in the new project.
Zanvyl Krieger: Baltimore businessman and real estate
investor who restored and rejuvenated the Lord Baltimore Hotel to
create a successful hotel component with the Baltimore Hilton in
the Charles Center project.
Walter Rothschild: financial vice president of the
family-owned Sun Life Insurance Company, who devoted years of his
life to the development of the company's headquarters building in
John Motz: CEO of the Safe Deposit and Trust Company
before its merger into the Mercantile Trust, who convinced many of
his private trust clients to support Charles Center and became the
Chairman of the Planning Council of the Greater Baltimore Committee
during the development of the Inner Harbor.
The Inner Harbor: Playground For Baltimoreans
Theodore R. McKeldin (again): the former Mayor and
Governor, who returned to
become Mayor for the second time in 1964, and launched the city into
the development of the entire Inner Harbor area.
Tom Todd and David Hamme, partners of David Wallace
in WRT: the primary designers of the I.H. Master Plan and the award-winning
Inner Harbor Promenade and Shoreline development, which became the
Playground for Baltimoreans in the 1970's.
Morton Hoffman: widely-respected private residential
and economic consultant for BURHA, and the author of the feasibility
study that supported the Inner Harbor and City Hall Plaza Master
Plan in 1964.
Gus Noack, partner in Rummel, Klepper & Kahl,
he was the original design engineer for planning the infrastructure
development that underpinned the successful plan for the Inner Harbor
George, Miles & Buhr: Easter
Shore engineering firm who created the original water quality and
dredging and fill analysis and construction plans or Inner Harbor
Project 1 in 1967-'70.
Whitman, Requardt: Engineering firm who created the
analysis and construction criteria for the redevelopment of the piers
in the early stages of the Inner Harbor project.
Tom Gisriel, Bill Hoffman - members of the City Law
Dept., attorneys for CC-IH in carrying out the land acquisition an
disposition phases of the development.
Arthur McVoy, Philip Darling, Larry Reich: Directors
of the Baltimore City Planning Department between 1960 and 1985.
Nathaniel Owings, Norman Klein: the Chairman and Director,
respectively, of the Design Concept Team, which was commissioned
by the Federal Highway Administration to find the solution that removed
the Interstate Highway System from the mouth of the Inner Harbor
Carl Folkemer and Louis Huber: Pastor and lay leader,
respectively, of Christ Lutheran Church, who persuaded a congregation
that had mostly moved their homes to the suburbs to become developers
of the first buildings in the Inner Harbor project.
Allen Quille: a successful real estate developer and
parking operator who developed the pioneering Quille garage, across
the street from the site of the World Trade Center.
Greg Halpin: Deputy Administrator of the Maryland
Port Authority, who successfully championed the Inner Harbor plan
for the development of the World Trade Center through a series of
postponements, in several gubernatorial administrations.
Harry Hughes: Maryland Secretary of Transportation
who risked the political consequences of authorizing construction
of the World Trade Center, and later became a successful and popular
I.M.Pei: his architectural firm designed the World
Trade Center; the partner in charge was Harry Cobb.
Walter J. Jeffrey: CEO of U.S. Fidelity and Guaranty
Company - the first private company to make a commitment to build
its headquarters in the Inner Harbor; the USF&G tower, tallest in the city, provided the credibility for other private firms
to build headquarters buildings on the new Pratt Street Boulevard.
Vlastimil Koubek: architect who designed the USF&G
Building - the first high-rise in the Inner Harbor - using the revolutionary
“slip-form” method of construction.
Ken Wilson: African-American businessman, who saw
the potential in the water plan for the Inner Harbor and took on
the challenge of operating the Inner Harbor marina when the project
was still in its infancy.
Harry Bard, Bill Lockwood: President and Vice-President,
respectively, of the Community College of Baltimore, who created
the college's Inner Harbor campus as a pioneering academic development,
representing the first African-American constituency to participate
in the downtown redevelopment movement.
Edgar Ewing: assistant director of the Baltimore Urban
Renewal and Housing Agency who became vice president of CC-IH, Inc.,
and raised the Federal government's financial commitment for the
Inner Harbor West residential component.
Charles Ackerman: an Atlanta-based developer, he arranged
the Dutch financial investment in Harborplace and developed two of
the major office buildings in the Inner Harbor project, for the Chesapeake
and Potomac Telephone Company and the Equitable Trust Bank.
Thomas J. D'Alesandro, III, Mayor after Ted McKeldin's
second term, at the time of the riots of 1968; he presided over the
successful campaign to move the Interstate Highway system out of
the Inner Harbor and the creation of the City Fair and the “playground
for Baltimoreans” in the Inner Harbor.
Barbara Mikulski: community activist who led the Road
Wars - the campaign to move the Interstate Highway away from Fells
Point and Downtown: her success led to her overwhelmingly popular
election as City Councilwoman, Member of Congress and U.S. Senator.
William Donald Schaefer: four-term, “do it now” Mayor
and the strongest supporter of the Inner Harbor development, who
led the transformation of the Baltimore citizens' attitude toward
their city from that of a collective inferiority complex to one of
pride and accomplishment, helping Baltimore come to be regarded as
a model for cities all over the World.
Sandra (Sandy) Hillman: Mayor Schaefer's public relations
and promotion executive who was the creator and supervisor of the
City's hugely successful marketing and community participation program
in the 1970's and 80's, when the foundation for the billion-dollar
tourist industry was laid.
Hope Quackenbush: a legitimate theater executive who
successfully managed the pioneering, new Mechanic Theater in Charles
Center and stimulated the highly successful City Fair program, which
reversed the negative community feelings engendered by the riots
Donald Stewart: Executive Director of the historic
floating museum, the U.S. Frigate Constellation, when it became the
City's first Inner Harbor attraction and the sculptural symbol at
the focal point of the Inner Harbor development.
Bernard Werner and Frank Kuchta: Baltimore City Directors
of Public Works who supervised the successful creation of the municipal
infrastructure during the development of Charles Center and the Inner
Fred Jarvis: landscape architect and partner in the
Land Design Research firm, who designed the “temporary” Shoreline
parks that served as the playground for Baltimoreans envisioned by
the Inner Harbor Master Plan for 30 years.
A Critical Mass Of Attractions: Building A Tourist
Alan Davis and Nigel Wolf: Chairman of the Board and
Director, respectively, of the Maryland Science Center, who managed
the move of the Science Center to the Inner Harbor; Mr. Davis donated
the state-of-the-art Planetarium.
Frank Gunther, Chairman Emeritus of the Board of the
National Aquarium, who led the design and development of the Aquarium
after the successful completion of the municipal bond issue referendum
Peter Chermayeff: Partner in the Cambridge Seven architectural
firm, designer of the National Aquarium in Baltimore and other aquarium
projects around the World - including those stimulated by the Baltimore
model in cities such as Chattanooga, TN, and Osaka, Japan.
Richard Donkervoet: managing partner of the architectural
firm CS&D, which designed the Baltimore Convention Center in conjunction with the DMJM
firm of Seattle.
A.N. Pritzker: patriarch of the Pritzker family of
Chicago, owners of the Hyatt Hotel chain; he saw the future promise
of the Inner Harbor Master Plan and negotiated the trail-blazing
financial deal that made it possible to build the Hyatt Inner Harbor
George Pillorge: partner in the RTKL architectural
firm who rescued the design of the Hyatt Hotel and later designed
the Inner Harbor Center office building.
Charles Benton: the trail-blazing financial genius
of the Schaefer administration, who created the program of Trustees
for Loans and Grants, a city-owned insurance fund which enabled the
city to finance $150 million worth of public-private projects through
a minimal investment of municipal bond funds.
James W. Rouse (again); after successfully completing
the new city of Columbia, he created the Festival Marketplace at
Faneuil Hall in Boston, and then at Harborplace in the Inner Harbor,
where it became the catalyst for the critical mass of attractions
that created a worldwide tourist destination.
Richard O. Berndt: partner in a prominent Baltimore
law firm who was the unsung hero of the hard-fought referendum on
the proposal to build Harborplace in 1978; he masterminded the public-private
political campaign which prevailed when the voters decided to vote
“yes” and “no” on separate questions on the ballot.
Ben Thompson; the Boston architect who designed Harborplace
in conjunction with James Rouse, and later became a national A..I.A..
career Gold Medalist.
Bruce Alexander, James Dausch: Senior Vice President
and Development Director, respectively, of The Rouse Company, who
supervised the construction, leasing and successful operation of
the Harborplace project.
Matt DeVito: President of the Rouse Company while
Jim Rouse was Chairman and Harborplace was conceived; he later became
Chairman and CEO, and headed the company when the pioneering mixed-use
project of the Gallery was developed.
O. Bowie Arnot: leasing representative and consultant
who leased a major portion of the Harboplace project, later joined
CC-IH, Inc. as Vice President for New Business Development.
Douglas Tawney: the Baltimore City Director of Recreation
and Parks during the Charles Center and Inner Harbor development
years, who provided strategic support from the quasi-independent
Park Board for the projects' pioneering forms of public space and
M. Jay Brodie: the first Deputy Commissioner of the
city Dept. of HCD from 1978 to 1987, later became Commissioner of
HCD and still later - in 1995 -- the first President of the Baltimore
Development Corporation of today.